Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Anthropometric Measures and some Biochemical Parameters among Type2 Diabetic Patients in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip

Akram M El-Taher, Baker M Zabut

Abstract


Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric measures and some biochemical parameters among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip. Materials and methods: The design of the study is a case control (2:1). The study was carried out during the last Ramadan (late of July to August, 2011) in Gaza Governorate. A total of 80 patients suffering from the diabetes type 2, aged 40 to 65 years, have no history of diabetic complications or other diseases and treated with the same of oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), and compared with 40 healthy individuals as control. Anthropometric and biochemical analysis were carried out one week before Ramadan and one week before its end. Data (obtained through questionnaire interview) were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Results: The mean (± SD) of age of the participants was 53.21 (± 7.459) years for diabetic patients and 54.84 (± 6.798) years for controls (p>0.05). When the results were summed up and compared statistically, there was a statistically significant reduction in the mean of body weight (p=0.038 and p=0.000 respectively) and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.001 and p=0.000 respectively) at the end of Ramadan month in both groups as compared to pre-Ramadan. This study also found a statistically reduction in the mean (± SD) of serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) during Ramadan as compared to values before Ramadan in both groups (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). A statistically significant increase in the mean (± SD) of serum triglycerides (TG) levels was also observed at the end of fasting among diabetic group (p-value=0.000). Among diabetic group, the mean (± SD) of HDL-C levels also showed significant reduction (P=0.000), while significant elevation in control group was observed (P=0.000) during Ramadan as compared to values before Ramadan. There was also statistically significant elevation in the mean (± SD) of serum total cholesterol (TC) (p-value=0.000 in both groups) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p-value=0.000 in both groups) during the period of fasting as compared to the period before fasting in both groups. In addition, during the two periods, there were no statistical differences in the mean (± SD) of serum creatinine (p=0.0.193 and p=0.147 respectively) and urea levels (p=0.560 and p=0.143 respectively) in both groups. Concerning the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the results also showed no statistical differences in the mean (± SD) of HbA1c levels (p=0.133 and p=0.905 respectively) in both groups. Conclusion: Ramadan fast is relatively safe among type 2 diabetic patients provided that they should be properly educated about drug regimen adjustment, diet control, daily activities and possible sudden complications. Keywords: Ramadan fasting, Biochemical parameters, Type 2 diabetes, Anthropometric measurement, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

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